Tag: United States

Selecting The Right Windows For Energy Efficiency

Selecting The Right Windows for Energy Efficiency

New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three
sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

Selecting the right window for a specific home invariably requires tradeoffs between different
energy performance features, and with other non-energy issues. An understanding of some basic energy concepts is therefore essential to choosing appropriate windows and skylights. As illustrated on the following page, three major types of energy flow occur through windows:

(1) non-solar heat losses and gains in the form of conduction, convection, and radiation;
(2) solar heat gains in the form of radiation; and
(3) airflow, both intentional (ventilation) and unintentional (infiltration).

Insulating Value

The non-solar heat flow through a window is a result of the temperature difference between the indoors and outdoors. Windows lose heat to the outside during the heating season and
gain heat from the outside during the cooling season, adding to the energy needs in a home. The effects of nonsolar heat flow are generally greater on heating needs than on cooling
needs because indoor-outdoor temperature differences are greater during the heating season than during the cooling season in most regions of the United States. For any window
product, the greater the temperature difference from inside to out, the greater the rate of heat flow.

A U-factor is a measure of the rate of non-solar heat flow through a window or skylight. (An R-value is a measure of the resistance of a window or skylight to heat flow and is the reciprocal of a U-factor.) Lower U-factors (or higher R values), thus indicate reduced heat flow. U-factors
allow consumers to compare the insulating properties of different windows
and skylights.

The insulating value of a singlepane window is due mainly to the thin films of still air on the interior and moving air on the exterior glazing surfaces. The glazing itself doesnt offer
much resistance to heat flow. Additional panes markedly reduce the U-factor by creating still air spaces, which increase insulating value.

In addition to conventional double-pane windows, many manufacturers offer windows
that incorporate relatively new tech- nologies aimed at decreasing U-factors.
These technologies include low-emittance (low-E) coatings and gas fills. A low-E coating is a microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide coating deposited on a glazing surface.

The coating may be applied to one or more of the glazing surfaces facing an
air space in a multiple-pane window, or to a thin plastic film inserted between panes. The coating limits radiative heat flow between panes by reflecting heat back into the home during cold weather and back to the outdoors during warm weather. This effect increases the insulating value of the window. Most window manufacturers now offer windows and skylights
with low-E coatings.

The spaces between windowpanes can be filled with gases that insulate better
than air. Argon, krypton, sulfur hexafluoride, and carbon dioxide are among the gases used for this purpose. Gas fills add only a few dollars to the prices of most windows and skylights. They are most effective when used in conjunction with low-E coatings. For these reasons, some manufacturers have made gas fills standard in their low-E windows and skylights.
The insulating value of an entire window can be very different from that of the glazing alone. The whole-window U-factor includes the effects of the glazing, the frame, and, if present, the insulating glass spacer. (The spacer is the component in a window that separates glazing panes. It often reduces the insulating value at the glazing edges.)
Since a single-pane window with a metal frame has about the same overall Ufactor as a single glass pane alone, frame and glazing edge effects were not of great concern before multiple-pane, low-E, and gas-filled windows and skylights were widely used. With the recent expansion of thermally improved glazing options offered by manufacturers, frame and spacer properties now can have a more pronounced influence on the U-factors of windows and skylights.

As a result, frame and spacer options have also multiplied as manufacturers offer improved designs. Window frames can be made of aluminum, steel, wood, vinyl, fiberglass, or
composites of these materials. Wood, fiberglass, and vinyl frames are better insulators than metal. Some aluminum frames are designed with internal thermal breaks, non-metal components that reduce heat flow through the frame.

These thermally broken aluminum frames can resist heat flow considerably better than aluminum frames without thermal breaks. Composite frames may use two or more materials (e.g. aluminum-clad wood, vinyl-clad wood) to optimize their design and performance, and typically have insulating values intermediate between those of the materials comprising them. Frame geometry, as well as material type, also strongly influences thermal performance properties.

Spacers can be made of aluminum, steel, fiberglass, foam, or combinations of
these materials. Spacer thermal perfor- mance is as much a function of geometry as of composition. For example, some well-designed metal spacers insulate almost as well as foam.

The table on page 3 shows representative U-factors for window glazing, frame, and spacer combinations under winter design conditions. Due to their orientation and their greater projected surface areas, domed and other shaped tilted and horizontal skylights have significantly higher U-factors than do vertical windows of similar materials and opening sizes.

Custom Home Builders Vaincrease Energy Efficiency Of My Home

Custom Home Builders VA:What can I do to increase the energy efficiency of my current home?

by: www.CustomHomeBuildersVA.com

Most advisers agree that energy prices are going to continue to go up. If you look at the possibility of further devaluation of the dollar combined with the possibility of draconian energy legislation, the opportunity of extraordinary escalation of energy prices exists.

Many Americans are living in homes larger than they need. Homes that were built for size rather than quality.

In my opinion, getting prepared for high energy costs is a critical component of any preparedness strategy.

First do all the conventional things to make your home as energy efficient as possible.

Add insulation, upgrade windows and doors (while you are doing this it is an excellent opportunity to upgrade your security), change light bulbs, upgrade appliances, install water heater blankets. If the plumbing pipes have relatively short runs it is very likely that a propane fired tank-less water heater would make sense.

Secondly, consider your heating system. This is an intensive area of energy for many homes.

We recommend wood-fired outdoor boilers where feasible. These units circulate hot water and can be used for many heating applications including home heat, domestic hot water, greenhouse radiant heat and swimming pools, to name a few.

If you have a heat pump, a propane furnace installed with the heat pump is a very good combination. This allows for an energy efficient propane furnace to do the heating when the heat pump is out of its operating range. While there are very efficient and comfortable heat pumps, the back-up heating strips on heat pumps are very energy intensive. Propane is still primarily produced in the United States.

Also, we have had very good experiences with geo-thermal. While it is still electric based, it provides an excellent source of heating in mild climates and is incredibly energy efficient.

We always recommend some alternate options in heating, so there is some source of heat in the event of grid failures. For example, if you have a geo-thermal heating system, install a wood stove as the back-up.
There are a number of structural changes or modifications which could result in much greater energy efficiency. These would include adding a vestibule or windbreak if you have children or go in and out of the house a good bit. You might be able to earth berm part of the north side of your house, or add a solar room to the south side of the home, just to name a few possibilities.

Know Why The European Energy Efficiency Rules Are Worthy

When it pertains to initiatives on climate change and control of emissions, the European Union is one of the most proactive governmental blocks as they go on with setting standards for energy efficiency. Recently, the EU issued new rules that will help ensure energy efficiency by requiring all industrial, commercial, and household machines and appliances to have labels displayed. As part of the major roster change, this is to ensure that energy efficiency will be a top priority to help commercial agenda move forward.

The rules on energy efficiency issued by the European Parliament insist that all building that are new and constructed after 2020 should have to be powered by renewable energy sources. Buildings account for a significant proportion of greenhouse gases emitted and it has long been recognized that stringent action should be taken to apply energy efficiency rules for new building stock.

The EU has been one of the most proactive governmental blocks pertaining to the war against climate change and in controlling emissions, continuously setting high standards of energy efficiency. They have recently issued new energy efficiency rules that expand the need to display labels on industrial, commercial and household appliances and machines. This is part of a sweeping roster change, aimed at ensuring that energy efficiency is at the top of the commercial agenda going forward.

Since buildings have a lifespan of approximately 50 years, the environmental impact should not be underestimated. Renovation and retrofitting can only go so far and new emphasis is being placed on sustainable efforts during the process of construction, as well as during the design phase. The European Union’s energy efficiency rules dictate that all buildings made after 2020 will conform to this philosophy.

The European Parliament is convinced that education is paramount when it comes to achieving high energy efficiency standards and as such, labels must now be attached to energy consuming products for industrial or commercial use across the Union. Windows and framework must also be appropriately labeled, so that users can see how much energy they are responsible for and can choose wisely, in advance.

If consumers, individuals or corporations are in possession of all the right information, they can choose to include appliances that work well according to their sustainability objectives. Each appliance or asset must perform with ultimate energy efficiency in the “carbon era” of tomorrow, or the user will be responsible for additional fees in one way or another.

The concept of carbon taxation or “cap and trade” restrictions is not new in the European Union, as their Energy Efficiency Scheme has been in place since 2005. Such concepts are beginning to become clear in the United States, where the corresponding legislation is already being considered, which will most probably include a cap and trade and taxation options.

In order to provide detailed information pertaining to energy use and carbon emissions, procedures and systems need to be implemented at the boardroom level for each organization. Quite apart from greenhouse gas reduction, energy efficiency drives savings, which every organization should be focusing on these days.

Around the world, governments tend to agree that we must aim for as much as an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions as based on 1990 levels, by the time we get to 2050. If not, considerable and detrimental change could be caused to climate and weather patterns. This level of change will, nevertheless, call for consistent and urgent action and implementation of new energy efficiency rules, everywhere.

The Oreck Family History

The Oreck company is known for making vacuums, but it also produces air cleaners and miscellaneous household products. The company makes several models of household vacuums, shop (wet/dry) vacuums, floor waxers and refinishers, and air purifiers.

The Oreck Corporation was founded by David Oreck in the United States in 1963. The company is based in New Orleans, Louisiana, and its principal manufacturing facilities are in a modern 375,000 square foot factory in Long Beach, Mississippi.

Oreck Corporation started as a manufacturer of upright vacuum cleaners for the hotel industry in the United States. They designed a lightweight yet powerful and durable vacuum which was preferred by hotel housekeepers over the very heavy models available at that time. Oreck vacuums proved so popular that they are now used in over 50,000 hotels worldwide. After using these efficient vacuums at work, hotel personnel wanted to buy the machines for home use, which prompted Oreck to manufacture household models as well as their commercial line. Their products, while not cheap, are known for exceptional durability and ease of handling.

The Oreck XL 8-pound vacuum cleaner, aside from being one of the lightest models on the market, has a factory-tested estimated product lifespan of 18 years. The Arthritis Foundation gave this vacuum an Ease-of-Use Commendation for its exclusive Helping Hand Handle, which is ergonomically designed to reduce strain on wrists and arms. The user can simply push and pull the vacuum without having to grip the handle tightly, making it much easier to use for arthritis sufferers.

The Oreck air cleaner works by attracting air particles such as pollen and dust onto an electrically-charged collection grid. One unit can clean the air of a 30 foot square room. After passing air over a collection plate to trap particles, an Air Revitalizer is added at the end of the air cleaner which releases negative ions to revitalize the air. The Air Revitalizer can be turned on or off on the Professional Air Purifier. Leaving theAir Revitalizer on provides a pleasant, clean smell, but has no effect on the air purifiers cleaning efficiency.

The Oreck Air Purifier is not an ozone generator because it does not rely on ozone as part of the cleaning process. However, ozone is a natural by-product of many electrical appliances. The Air Purifiers Air Revitalizer emits only a very low level of ozone, well under UL and FDA guidelines of 50 ppb (parts per billion). Though ozone generators are sold by other manufacturers, they do a poor job of cleaning the air and generate high levels of ozone, especially in small spaces, which irritate the lungs. Consumers are advised by health authorities and the EPA not to purchase these units.

The collection grid of the Oreck air purifier, which should be kept clean to maintain the efficiency of the unit, is easy to remove and can be washed simply by a short soak in warm water and detergent. The company offers a specialized cleaning solution for the collection cell, but unless the air is full of tarry substances such as cigarette smoke, this is not necessary. Other than the carbon filter, which is not necessary to clean the air, there are no disposable filters to buy.

The Oreck model functions differently from a HEPA filter. HEPA stands for High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance, and These filters use a mat of very fine fibers to capture airborne particles.

HEPA filters create high resistance to airflow, which gets worse as the filter loads with dirt. This resistance causes HEPA units to use more energy , and cost more to operate. As the filter becomes more and more clogged, performance declines. Therefore, HEPA units require the user to frequently change the expensive filters. Since Oreck uses only a washable collection plate, continuing cost is not an issue with their air filters.

However, it is important to keep the collection cell clean, as it does not function well once it covered with dust. The company advises users to wash the collector after 4 weeks of initial use and every 8 weeks thereafter, but every house has a different amount of dust, so it is best to check the unit every few weeks to see whether a film has accumulated on the collector.

New units come with a 3-year warranty, and reconditioned units come with a 1-year warranty. The company has been in business for a long time and has a good reputation for honoring its guarantees.

How To Improve The Us Economy – A Political Perspective

The United States has been in a recession since December, 2007, as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a private, nonprofit research organization. But the American people, and the Obama administration along with the democrat majority congress, seem to be at odds on how to fix the American economy.

A robust economy means companies expand which results in job creation. Currently, the American people are not spending because many are not working, and those who are working are spending less, most likely due to the possibility of losing their job. Current unemployment rate stands at 9.6% as of August, 2009. A decrease in spending by the American people results in a decrease in company profits, company non expansion, and more layoffs.

Reporting on a survey by Watson Wyatt, a consulting firm, the HRSpecialist.com reported in November of 2008 that one-fourth of U.S. employers plan to have staff reductions during the following calendar year. We are now seeing this come to fruition for 2009.

So how can the US economy improve? Improvement being defined as two consecutive quarters where we do not have negative growth in the GDP (gross domestic product). The following is what we call the Steps to Economic Improvement. These are steps for consideration which hopefully result in a healthy bipartisan discussion between our elected congressman and their constituency. These steps may result in non-recessionary growth of our economy.

You may or may not agree with these steps, but at a bare minimum, these are points to consider, and ideally result in a healthy discussion with our elected congressmen, which at last check, is one of the unchanged notions of a free democratic society.

Steps to Economic Improvement:

1) The first step is to realize that it is business and not government that creates jobs and wealth within the American society. This is where we believe is the heart of the problem. It is evident that the Obama administration believes it is government that will lead Americans to economic prosperity. This is why the federal government has put forth a $780 billion stimulus package. So where is this money really going. Lets take a look at the breakdown. (source Republican Senate office, CNN.com AC360)

$780 Billion Stimulus Package:

MORE THAN $43 BILLION IN TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENTS
$27 BILLION FOR HIGHWAY, ROAD AND BRIDGE INVESTMENTS
$8.4 BILLION FOR PUBLIC TRANSIT INVESTMENT
$2 BILLION FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL
$1.3 BILLION FOR FAA AIRPORT IMPROVEMENT FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT
$850 MILLION FOR AMTRAK
$250 MILLION FOR GRANTS TO STATES FOR INVESTMENT IN HIGH SPEED AND INNER CITY PASSENGER RAIL
$100 MILLION TO MARITIME ADMINISTRATION FOR ASSISTANCE TO SMALL SHIPYARDS
$76.8 BILLION IN EDUCATION INVESTMENTS
$39 BILLION FOR STATE FISCAL RELIEF TARGETED DIRECTLY FOR EDUCATION
$13.9 BILLION FOR PELL GRANTS
$13.5 BILLION FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION FUNDING
$10.4 BILLION FOR TITLE I
$6.4 BILLION FOR WATER AND SEWER INFRASTRUCTURE
$3 BILLION FOR JOB TRAINING
$3.25 BILLION FOR WORKFORCE INVESTMENT PROGRAMS
$160 MILLION FOR JOB CORPS
$87 BILLION IN TEMPORARY AND TARGETED MEDICAID RELIEF TO STATES
$5 BILLION FOR SUPPLEMENTAL GRANTS TO PUBLIC HOUSING AUTHORITIES FOR CAPITAL NEEDS
$4.7 BILLION FOR STATE AND LOCAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY BLOCK GRANTS
$4.4 BILLION FOR SMART GRID
$2.9 BILLION FOR WEATHERIZATION PROGRAMS
$2 BILLION FOR ADVANCED BATTERY MANUFACTURING
$7 BILLION FOR LOAN GUARANTEES FOR STANDARD RENEWABLES
$800 MILLION FOR CONSTRUCTION OF PORTS OF ENTRY
$500 MILLION FOR FIREFIGHTERS ASSISTANCE GRANTS
$1.2 BILLION FOR NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION

As part of the 2010 budget proposal, the Obama administration has also proposed additional measures to attempt to stabilize the economy, including a $23 trillion measure aimed at stabilizing the financial system and freeing up credit. In a nutshell, auditors from the Congressional Budget Office have said that Obama’s budget would produce $9.3 trillion in deficits over the next decade.

This is a large chunk of change that needs to be provided by the American taxpayer! But the question is, will all of this spending help the long term growth of the US economy? Growth being during the period of not just the next few years, but rather 10 to 15 years. We believe it will not and here is why.

2) These programs burden the tax payer. History has shown that long sustained economic growth can not take place when the tax payer is over burdened by a federal deficit. Also, when the government spends money they do not have, they print more money, which results in a devaluation of the US dollar. This results in inflation.

3) Small businesses employ just over half of U.S. workers. How do you define a small business. The Office of Advocacy defines a small business for research purposes as an independent business having fewer than 500 employees. In examining the $780 billion stimulus package, you can see that there is no real help for small business. Remember, job creation is needed for economic recovery.

4) The socializing of America will not result in long term economic growth. The massive spending that the Obama administration has proposed will result in an even greater tax burden to the American people.

Most Americans believe in the frame work and meaning of The Constitution of the United States. The first words of the Constitution “We the People” make it clear that our government was established to serve the people. The essence of a democracy was eloquently stated by President Lincoln in his Gettysburg Address “that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” This simply means that our elected president and congress have a responsibility to listen to the American people.

And it can be said that most Americans do not want a socialistic society for the United States. Government needs to stop spending the American tax dollar, simply because an escalating government deficit will not result in an overall improvement in our economy.

5) Programs such as Cash for Clunkers, auto industry bailouts, and the like, only in the end increase the tax burden on the American people. These massively expensive programs do very little to improve the viability and strength of most small business. Based on 2008 figures, there are 155 million workers in the United States. The car industry accounts for about 13 million of these workers. Therefore, most Americans will not benefit from the bailout of the auto industry. There is only a marginal at best improvement in the economy from such programs.

6) We do applaud the Obama administration for the injection of capital into the financial institutions, because for small business to flourish, there needs to be capital available, and commercial banks and other depository institutions are the largest lenders of capital to small business.

7) The economy will do much better when companies are left to compete in the market place with minimal government involvement. A case in point, the Reagan administration had a policy of less government during the 1980s. This resulted in long term economic growth. This is the exact opposite of what the Obama administration is trying to do.

The Obama administration was given a bad economy when Barack Obama took office. But the Obama administration has taken a bad situation and made it much worse. Many economists believe that our economy would return anyway, with minimal government involvement. In terms of the economy, the government many times creates or prolongs problems and really does not solve them. A case in point, the deregulation of the banking industry which resulted in sub-prime lending. This created an eventual financial collapse, which resulted in the down turn in our economy and our current economic meltdown.

To conclude, the concept of minimal government is an important component for a strong American economy. Letting companies naturally compete within a free democratic society, with minimal government involvement, produces a robust economy, which benefits all Americans. The writers of the Constitution of the United Sates, our founding fathers, believed that the role of government in the lives of people should be minimal. Should we not adhere to the principles of our Constitution?

By letting your voice be heard, it is the American people who in the end control the destiny of the United States. And in the end, it is the American people who will control the destiny of the American economy. Go to your congressmans website and contact them, discuss these points, express your opinion, and let them know how you feel. It is your right and duty as an American citizen.

Federal Brace, A company on the move.

This week Ive chosen to recount the incredible year Federal Brace has had bringing their customers Beautifully Crafted, Confident Supports. They have doubled their countertop bracket line by announcing the release of ten new styles. These fresh new countertop bracket designs augment the large selection of countertop supports already available under the Federal Brace brand.

The companys new Enterprise Support, Foremont Support, and Perrine Decorative Support styles are part of the new countertop mounted support line. The use of these brackets within this application type is to support an elevated bar directly from the lower countertop level. The brackets are mounted directly to the sub-counter and elevated on a counter or a bar on support plates at the top of the bracket.

Federal Brace announced the Bracket Backer , a designing enhancement with backer board trim that protects soft wall material behind brackets in heavy weight applications. This product is designed to prevent sheetrock flexing or crushing of soft wallboard materials.

They provide free video guides and tips regarding countertop and countertop bracket installations. These videos feature trained professionals using various support styles and types in many different applications. They create these videos for the benefit of their customers so they may gain knowledge of the countertop installation process and to see their countertop supports in action.

Federal Brace is no longer just a kitchen countertop support company. To finish out a year of expansive growth, the company is introducing a full line of sixteen shelf brackets. These new offering will include designs from Federal Braces most popular countertop support models. Now customers can match their countertop supports with decorative shelf brackets elsewhere in the home.

The Brunswick style support was featured for The KBISs Best In Show, in Chicago, where it garnered much interest and positive comments related to both its strength and style. At the IWF show, in Atlanta, wood workers marveled at the craftsmanship of the brackets and showered Federal Brace with positive comments.

When it comes to the customers needs, their needs are their number one focus and the driving force of their business. To meet the needs of the consumers they have expanded their offices and added more personal. They have added more dealers and distributors throughout the continental United States. Federal Brace has helped thousands of homeowners with countertop support solutions and is steadfast in supplying Beautifully Crafted, Confident Supports for America. Onto 2011!

Amish Built Solid Wooden Gun Cabinet.

When you think about something handmade in the United States you first would think of Amish made. The reason is the pride and tradition that the Amish have earned over the decades. The son of a fathers father was a woodworkers craftsman and was shown the way to marry the wood pieces together and make a beautiful wooden gun cabinet that any home owner would be proud to display in their living room or den. This old fashioned traditional way of making furniture will let you the customer describe your wants and needs to the craftsman. Whether it to be made of a specific type of wood, cherry, oak, walnut or mahogany of a certain dimension that the gun cabinet has to be to fit into a particle place or setting. Being hand crafted and not pounced off with a jig on a machine allows you to have that custom one of a kind piece to fulfill you requirements.

If you are a collector or have a passion for firearms, rifles, shotguns, muzzleloader and pistols you are going to want a place or area to them. Way collect them if you cannot share them with the people you know would appreciate them. I cannot think of a better place than in the security of my home to show them off.

Having a handmade wooden gun cabinet to pass on to your heirs would be a precious family heirloom by its own right. If that beautiful crafted cabinet was to have your prized collection of rifles and shotguns to showcase inside your heirlooms cabinet and guns would be kept safe from damage and pass on to generation to generations to come.

If you cannot find an Amish craftsman locally there are some fine furniture makers all across America that still take a lot of pride and integrity in their craft. Most wooden gun cabinets are fitted with locks on the cabinet doors to insure that only authorized persons are to have access to your firearms inside. The gun storage supplies should be lockable to keep the ammunition and guns separate.

You firearms are not the only things that you can display inside your cabinet. I have seen arrowhead collections, Hummels, hunting knives and collectible knives. The display cabinet is very versatile. With the cost that you have already invested into your collection investing in a way to display them and keep them secure from damage helps protect that investment for you and your grandsons someday.

Roof Shingles Prices – Take Out the Guess Work

Spring is the season for roofing and most of the building supply houses will have sales weekly that offer roofing supplies. Depending on what product you will need the prices can be relatively small to several hundred dollars. Roofing products are pretty versatile and can range from peel and stick roofing shingles to steep roof pitches that come in a roll, asphalt, wood shake, lamented and steel. Steel shingles can even be shaped to resemble wood shake. Steel shingles cost around $58.00 a bundle and three bundles cover 100 square feet.

The most common roofing shingle is an asphalt shingle and they can come in various sizes and tabs. Corning offers a three tab roofing one. A collection of asphalt shingles is normally between $15.49 to $60.00 a bundle depending on the warranty the company offers. Corning even offers an asphalt shingle called the Heritage that is a three tab asphalt tile that gives the illusion of wood shake and is available in various colors to match the exterior of the home’s siding and trim. The Heritage shingle can normally withstand 130 mph and a three bundles should cover 98.4 square feet.

Shake is probably the oldest form of shingle still sold in the United States. Wood shake comes in two sizes, medium and large. The medium wood shake measures 18″ by 7 1/2″ and a bundle normally covers 15′ and costs around $22.00 a bundle depending on the home building store pricing. The large wood shake is 24″ by 10″ and a bundle normally covers 20′ and costs around $35.00 a bundle. Wood shake is also available to complete the hip and ridge of the roof. A bundle cost around $43.00 and covers sixteen linear feet.

A new type of shingle that has recently gained popularity is the laminated asphalt shingle. The laminated asphalt shingle has a 53 year warranty, is algae resistant and is said to withstand winds up to 80 mph. They are reported in the advertisement to be so cheap that the bundle price could not even be listed in the advertisement. The home building stores want you to call or come in for pricing as they feel the they were to low to place in their company ads. These laminated shingles are said to be part of the new green movement and are environmentally friendly. Three bundles weigh 235 lbs and cover 100 square feet.

Air Conditioning Systems

Air conditioning refers to a system for controlling and regulating the humidity, ventilation and the temperature of a building or room for making it comfortable for the occupants. Air conditioning finds application in domestic, commercial and industrial fields.

Air conditioning also form an integral part of the medical and transportation sectors also, in both hospitals and transporting temperature fragile goods.

Conventional methods of air conditioning require a large energy source for maintaining the temperature. This translates into a high-energy requirement, high cost and high carbon dioxides emissions which has negative impacts both economically and with regard to the environment A break through in the air conditioning field came with the use of a new technology which makes use of the latent heat from the outside environment for controlling and regulating the indoor temperature. Using this technology Daikin has startled the Air conditioning industry with the production of its all-new Altherma! Daikins Altherma has high-energy use optimization.

This has been made possible with the advent of the new technology which absorbs the latent heat from the environment for its process. Altherma from Daikin has literally revolutionized the air conditioning industry.

Conventional air-conditioning systems depend upon water at heightened temperature during winter seasons to regulate the temperature. Modern day buildings are well-insulated structures built specifically with the comfort and well being of the occupants in mind. These well insulated buildings have made it easier for the working of the air conditioning systems making a reduction in the temperature of the water circulated thus saving a lot of energy. Altherma comes with a hydro-box that is compact and can be installed in limited spaces out side the building.

Air conditioning refers to the cooling and de-humidification of indoor air for thermal comfort. In a wider sense, the term can be referred to as any form of cooling, heating, ventilation or disinfection that modifies the condition of air.

An air conditioner or an air-con is an appliance, system, or mechanism designed to stabilize the air temperature and humidity within an area, typically using a refrigeration cycle but sometimes using evaporation. Most commonly for comfort cooling in buildings and transportation vehicles. Refrigeration air conditioning equipment usually reduces the humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air, sending the water to a drain and removing water vapor from the cooled space and lowering the relative humidity.

For air conditioning in residential homes, some countries set minimum requirements for energy efficiency. In the United States, the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) often rates the efficiency of air conditioners. The higher the SEER rating, the more energy efficient is the air conditioner. The SEER rating is the BTU of cooling output during its normal annual usage divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours during the same period.

Learning What A Barcelona Chair Is

The Barcelona chair, which is actually considered to be a more modern classic and one of the most elegant chairs of the twentieth century, was actually designed by Mies van der Rohe.

In fact, he was the one to design this marvelous chair at the International Exposition in Barcelona in 1929. Mies van der Rohe drew his inspiration for his design from an Egyptian folding chair and from a Roman folding stool. The chair was created to replicate a throne and made its very first appearance during the inaugural ceremony by the Spanish royal family at the exposition.

The chair exudes grandeur and class while at the same time it is light and strong. The Barcelona chair is considered by common consensus to be the very pinnacle of a harmonized approach to materials, design, and workmanship. In 1950, the original design of this amazing chair was improved upon by Mies, which resulted in a fully welded object in which additional braces at the welding points were eliminated. The one piece frame made of stainless steel actually offered much more higher strength and spring.

In the United States, this design was popularized by George Nelson. The chair was originally hand made, but was subsequently mass produced and marketed by the company known as Knoll Associates, which now manufactures it in the United States and in twenty nine other countries. You can find these marvelous chairs at either your local furniture store of see pictures on-line at a variety of home decor forums.

Two connected pairs of crossed steel bars constitute the framework of the chair. On this marvelous chair the front legs and the back legs of the chair are curved, while the back legs cross the front legs to form a double curve that supports the seat. The chair has foam rubber cushions, which are covered with buttoned leather and are placed on the seat and the back by means of saddle leather straps.

The Barcelona chair is sold by a large variety of furniture stores. Several of these furniture stores have on-line catalogs, which a prospective buyer can browse through easily. Although, there are several renditions of the Barcelona chair that are available in the market, they are usually made from chromed stainless steel with the single piece frame that has been hand buffed till a mirror finish is achieved.

The upholstery consists of individual leather panels, which are actually forty in number that are often times hand welted and hand tufted. In order to maintain the uniformity of appearance and texture, the leather panels are usually crafted from a single hide, with the most favored colors being either tan or black.

Even though the Barcelona chair has a much more modular look that suggests it has been massed produced, it is the craftsmanship that requires all the virtues that are associated with a hand crafted masterpiece. In fact, the Barcelona chair is a piece of sculpture and tends to find extensive use in many waiting rooms and foyers throughout the world.