Category: Energy Efficiency

Energy Saving Methods That Could Change The World

Humanity has always faced challenges to its survival and the well being of its societies. Today is no different. Regardless of where you live, global warming will change how you live, work and eat. Thankfully, people have always been able to rise to the challenges before them, and this crisis will be no different. Some methods are easy and some are hard, but these different ways of saving energy could change the world, indeed. These broadly drawn methods are a framework on which our energy future can be changed.

Forging World Partnerships.In the past couple decades, the economies of China and India have made serious strides. Both countries are industrializing exponentially, which boosts the level of pollution they generate. According to Wired Magazine, China is planning to build 30 nuclear power plants by the year 2020. This power starved nation also constructed the Three Gorges Dam, which changed the path of major rivers and flooded large parts of the country in order to generate hydroelectric power. By working together and sharing technology, everyone could benefit from evolving methods of energy generation.

Streamlining Public Transportation. Getting from place to place takes a lot of energy. Public transportation reduces the personal amount of energy one uses while traveling, but it has its problems. Buses and trains are often extremely inconvenient, and can cost the same as simply driving to one’s destination. Airline travel uses massive amounts of petroleum. The Japanese have made strides to increase the efficiency and comfort of travel; their extensive use of electromagnetic bullet trains get people where they need to be quickly and at a relatively low cost to the environment.

Improving Private Transportation. Let’s face it, people are not going to give up the convenience of automobiles unless they have no other choice. That’s why private and public agencies are working to improve the energy efficiency of automobiles. While a completely solar powered car is pretty far off, Ford Motor Company is developing technology that will incorporate roof mounted solar cells to contribute to charging the hybrid battery. Plug in electric cars are also a future necessity, and these will be powered by the same clean electricity that powers your home.

Getting Back to Basics.The conveniences of the modern world are amazing. Heating and air conditioning allow us to live where we please in comfort and all of our electronic devices keep us in constant contact with our loved ones. While we’re certainly not going to give up our climate control or cell phones, the cumulative effect of millions of people could reduce our energy usage enough to mitigate the effects of global climate change. Instead of shutting out nature with sealed windows, we can open windows in the evening to let cool air in, and close blinds over them to keep out the hot sunlight. As they draw energy even when not in use, we can unplug phone chargers and flat screen televisions to reduce our energy consumption even further. Even something as simple as planting bushes can moderate the temperature in our homes. Vigilance by a few can mean success for the many.

Reduce Energy Transportation Cost. Americans use a lot of fossil fuels to generate their electricity and power their cars. Currently, we get a lot of these materials from far flung regions. Eliminating some of the transportation cost would make a dent in our energy costs and would also help influence American foreign policy. For example, accessing the oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge would bring ready energy from within our own borders. Refining the techniques used to reclaim shale oil in Canada would also accomplish the same effect.

Help Reduce the Pollution Caused by Industry. The skylines of yesteryear were blanketed with heavy smoke from dirty manufacturing plants. Thanks to a progression of advances in green technology, these plants give off far fewer greenhouse and other gases. Most smokestacks are currently equipped with scrubbers that cut down on the volume of sulfur and other gases bellowed into the atmosphere. With further research dollars, these methods will only get better, reining in air pollution, even as our population increases.

Education is the Key. Education is the solution to so many problems. The more people learn, the easier it is to effect meaningful change. In addition to making more Americans aware of what they can do to change the world, it’s also important to reach out to the rest of the world. The Internet and other methods of communication make it possible to put everyone on the same page.

Saving Money Through Texas Energy Efficiency Investments

As one of the fastest growing states in the US, Texas is challenged with increasing its productivity and it can do this by increasing investments in energy efficiency initiatives that can save both residential and commercial users of Texas electricity literally billions of dollars over the next two decades. Seems like an impossible task? According to the American Council for the Energy-Efficient Economy or ACEEE, such proposition is not only possible but completely doable.

In a recent study conducted by the ACEEE called Energy Efficiency Investments as an Economic Productivity Strategy for Texas, energy efficiency programs in the state could reduce Texas electricity consumption by up to 30% by the year 2030, creating savings for electricity users of up to $14 billion within that period. Not only that, energy efficiency initiatives in the state will also boost employment by creating up to 47,000 jobs each year until the projected period of 2030.

The 30% projected reduction in Texas electricity consumption was based on targets set by the Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) for energy efficiency improvements. Also taken into consideration are the estimates made by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) which handles the energy deregulated areas in the state. However, these projected figures will only be achieved with the expansion of current energy efficiency investments which spans all sectors including commercial, industrial and residential area.

Energy Efficiency Initiatives in Texas

According to the ACEEE study, to meet the growing demands for Texas electricity, the state would have to invest about 6 to 10 cents per kilowatt-hour on new electric generating plants. Energy efficiency provides a better alternative however, as the cost of investments to achieve a 30% gain in efficiency will only cost the state less than 4 cents per kilowatt-hour.

For years, energy efficiency programs to reduce electricity consumption in the state have already benefitted Texas residents and businesses as evident in their reduced energy bills. Between 2009 and 2011, the state already benefitted up to $1.5 billion in savings from these energy efficiency programs, which also created up to 12,000 jobs during this same period and reduced emissions by as much as 413 tons per year. By expanding these energy efficiency initiatives, the state will most likely hit its targets by the year 2030.

Texas schools have also benefitted from energy efficiency programs which involved easy investments. A school district with at least 4,000 students can realize savings by as much as $1.6 million in ten years or basically $160,000 savings each year from their Texas electricity bills. Most of the investment funds came from the Texas Loan STAR program for energy efficiency.

City governments have also taken initiatives in reducing energy consumption in their respective areas. In Houston, energy efficiency projects include the use of energy efficient LED traffic lights that would save as much as 85% more Houston electricity than traditional incandescent lamps. Aside from the cost savings, the use of energy efficient lamps also reduces carbon emissions, requires less maintenance and improves overall visibility for each traffic light.

In an energy deregulated Texas electricity market, consumers have the power to select their energy options and apply for grants that would finance their energy efficiency upgrades that would save thousands of dollars from their electricity bills each year. These are basically great investments that would help ensure a clean and sustainable future for all.

Looking For Cheap Walkie Talkies With Cool Design Think About Free Talker Pair Wrist Watch

A handheld transceiver, here we are going to call it ‘walkie talkie’, is a communication device which is made handheld and portable. It is such a two-way radio receiver. This device was introduced for armed forces but today it is widely used for public safety and commercial jobs. It is named as walkie talkie since you can talk to others while you are mobile. Here, our article will talk about a cheap walkie talkie that you might prefer buying.
We take the Free Talker Pair Walkie Talkie Wrist Watch into our recommendation as it comes with innovations, different design. It is unlike the other walkie talkie which is handheld. You just put on this device on your wrist and talk to the others. This is one is set for communication within two miles distance. This is good to keep in touch with family and friends. You will be satisfied with the performance as you see its features within the following.
This walkie talkie comes with adjustable watch band to fit any size of user, from kids to adults. The battery is made to long last in which you can get this device standby in 3 days. It uses lithium ion battery protection. This means energy efficiency and saving money. When you buy this device, you will get 2 pieces a set. Talking about the channel, it is equipped with channel scan and made for channels 409/462/446/476/448……MHZ. But the channel depends on the country where it is used.
Another feature, the Free Talker Pair Walkie Talkie Wrist Watch is equipped with Internal VOX “ON” for hands-free function. As it comes with watch design, it is also equipped with time display. This walkie talkie apply 12-hour digital clock with backlit LCD display. Also, as the important element of walkie talkie, the volume control is attached to this innovative gadget.
There are color versions available that you can choose which one suits you. Black, silver, yellow, blue and purple, choose whatever matches your style. Talking about style, this walkie talkie is designed not only for functionality but also for stylish appearance so that you can put it on as communication media and your accessories as well. You will be able stay in contact with your partner, while you are shopping in the mall or watching sports with the Free Talker Pair Walkie Talkie Wrist Watch. One more point, you will get earphone within the package when you decide to buy this walkie talkie.
As you see the performance and features of the Free Talker Pair Walkie Talkie Wrist Watch, you might consider this one to help you keep in touch with your family, friend or business partner. One last point, you don’t need to worry about the price as this one is offered in reasonable price. This cheap walkie talkie will be perfect for those who concern functionality in stylish designed gadget.

A Look At The 2013 Ford C-Max Hybrid

Ford brings something different to the U.S market with the C-Max Hybrid. The American automaker is generally known for its durable trucks like the F150 and efficient compact cars like the Fiesta. However, Ford is taking a risk by introducing a vehicle type that is generally not as popular in America as Europe; the wagon. What makes the C-Max different from every other wagon on the market is it’s fuel efficiency; it achieves an impressive 47 mpg overall.

One look at the C-MAX lets you know that this isn’t an ordinary car. Its design is practical with five doors while still being edgy and modern at the same time. The C-Max is a brand new model to the Ford lineup; 2013 will be the first time that it will be available to U.S buyers. Buyers are able to select from two trim levels; SE and SEL. The more expensive SEL model comes equipped with a liftgate, a rear camera, and upgraded sound system and a glass roof. Both of the trim levels are powered by a 2.0 4 cylinder and achieves 188 horsepower thanks to an electric motor that works in tandem with a traditional engine. The electric motor is powered by a 1.6 lithium ion battery that is stored in the trunk space.

Acceleration is fast and powerful despite the C-Max’s hybrid status partly due to the CVT transmission. Curb weight for the C-MAX is substantial and comes in at 3600 pounds. When it comes to speed, the C-MAX can reportedly reach 62 mph just on electric power. Mileage range is also significantly higher than that of the Prius V; the C-MAX’s main competitor. The interior is spacious with sufficient room for five adults and fine materials. Standard features include USB compatibility with most music players and Bluetooth compatibility which allows the driver to make hands free telephone calls.

Optional features include MyFordTouch, SYNC, a tailgate system, navigation, a rearview camera and a self-parallel parking feature which can come in handy for those who live in crowded cities. Cargo space stands at 24.5 cubic feet. Safety features include an air bag system, 4 wheel disc brakes, ESC, brake assist and traction control. Pricing ranges from the mid $25k range for the base model all the way to $28k for a top of the line trim level with all of the bells and whistles. The Ford C-Max hybrid would be a good choice for anyone looking for a hybrid vehicle with great mileage.

Air Conditioning Systems

Air conditioning refers to a system for controlling and regulating the humidity, ventilation and the temperature of a building or room for making it comfortable for the occupants. Air conditioning finds application in domestic, commercial and industrial fields.

Air conditioning also form an integral part of the medical and transportation sectors also, in both hospitals and transporting temperature fragile goods.

Conventional methods of air conditioning require a large energy source for maintaining the temperature. This translates into a high-energy requirement, high cost and high carbon dioxides emissions which has negative impacts both economically and with regard to the environment A break through in the air conditioning field came with the use of a new technology which makes use of the latent heat from the outside environment for controlling and regulating the indoor temperature. Using this technology Daikin has startled the Air conditioning industry with the production of its all-new Altherma! Daikins Altherma has high-energy use optimization.

This has been made possible with the advent of the new technology which absorbs the latent heat from the environment for its process. Altherma from Daikin has literally revolutionized the air conditioning industry.

Conventional air-conditioning systems depend upon water at heightened temperature during winter seasons to regulate the temperature. Modern day buildings are well-insulated structures built specifically with the comfort and well being of the occupants in mind. These well insulated buildings have made it easier for the working of the air conditioning systems making a reduction in the temperature of the water circulated thus saving a lot of energy. Altherma comes with a hydro-box that is compact and can be installed in limited spaces out side the building.

Air conditioning refers to the cooling and de-humidification of indoor air for thermal comfort. In a wider sense, the term can be referred to as any form of cooling, heating, ventilation or disinfection that modifies the condition of air.

An air conditioner or an air-con is an appliance, system, or mechanism designed to stabilize the air temperature and humidity within an area, typically using a refrigeration cycle but sometimes using evaporation. Most commonly for comfort cooling in buildings and transportation vehicles. Refrigeration air conditioning equipment usually reduces the humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air, sending the water to a drain and removing water vapor from the cooled space and lowering the relative humidity.

For air conditioning in residential homes, some countries set minimum requirements for energy efficiency. In the United States, the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) often rates the efficiency of air conditioners. The higher the SEER rating, the more energy efficient is the air conditioner. The SEER rating is the BTU of cooling output during its normal annual usage divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours during the same period.

Server Room Temperature Control Tips

The worst way to find out that your server room temperature is not optimum can be a sudden server shut down because of over heating. Although you can always do the damage control and get servers back online in a short time, the sudden disruption could cost you greatly in terms of business efficiency and productivity. It makes good business sense to be prepared for worst situations, but it is even more important to take proper measures to prevent such things from occurring in the first place.

To maintain smooth and efficient functioning of server equipment, maintaining the right ambient temperature is very important. You will get optimum performance and disruption free operation of a server only if proper temperature is maintained in the server room. Although it is well known that servers need air conditioning, the matter doesnt end here. How much air conditioning is required and what is the right temperature to be maintained, are questions, which must be answered to prevent any unexpected server crashes.

Ideally, the server room should have a temperature of 65F to 75F. This will ensure that your equipment works at its peak performance at all times. You will need a reliable and efficient air conditioning system to maintain the server room temperature in the right range.

Central air conditioning in your entire office, no matter how effective, will not suffice to take care of your server room needs. That is because thermostat dependent air conditioning will not guarantee proper cooling in the server room. The server may still overheat when the cooling dips. It is wise to invest in a separate air conditioning unit for your server room, so that you can be assured of ambient temperature, irrespective of how hot or cold the rest of the rooms in your office get.

Another important thing to keep in mind is that different server units can heat up to different levels. What works for one type of unit may not be ideal for another. When you decide on the right temperature for your server room, make sure to take into consideration the needs of each equipment located there.

Dust control is also a critical aspect of maintaining servers at the right temperature. When dust settles in the equipment, the cool air from outside is prevented from reaching the over heated components of the machinery thereby rendering even the best cooling system ineffective. Regular dusting combined with periodic professional server room cleaning can help keep the air filters clear and allow your air conditioning to do its job effectively.

Lastly, monitor the temperature in the server room and make sure to tune it in line with the load and atmospheric conditions. For instance, its best to turn down the cooling in December when the outside temperatures are quite low, and increase the cooling in summers when the temperatures are higher outside. Monitoring and regulating the cooling to match the actual requirement will keep your servers running smoothly and also save you money on energy costs.

Central Heating The Way To Go For Energy Efficiency!

You have your home all snugly tight with the right amount of insulation in all the right places and you turn on the heat and the room heats up, but… the kitchen is still cold; you need a central heating system of some kind.

The central heating systems are some of the most efficient systems because they generate the heat and then pump it all over the house in the same proportions that you select. That way, the rooms that are being used gets the most heat and the rooms that are not being used gets quite a bit less or none at all depending on their usage.

The central heating system’s boiler or heating unit is contained in the garage or basement and the ducts are run under the house or through the ceiling to come out in each room and you can even add a humidifier or dehumidifier to the entire system to allow those important functions as well. That makes a very good investment in your home and may increase the sales price, if and when necessary, all that much more.

When you are looking for a central heating system for your home, you need to ask yourself some questions that will help the contractor position the correct unit in there that will be big enough but not too big. Those questions would be:

1.Are you in an area that is normally fairly cold or fairly hot?
2.Is your home on a cement pad or is there enough room under it to install the ducting that is needed?
3.Do you want floor vents or wall venting to inject the heating into your individual rooms?
4.Do you need to have ceiling vents?
5.Is your home insulated? Without insulation, you will need a larger unit right from the start.
6.What types of walls do you have?

These and several more will be asked of you by the contractor before they can offer any suggestions and the answers are very important. You are also going to want to check the energy efficiency ratings of the units that you settle on. There are the Energy Star ratings as well as the BTUs ratings and the SEER ratings. These are all very important as they can affect any tax advantages that you may accrue due to the Greening of your home in accordance with many of the local regulations around the world.

Since the most efficient space heater will only have about a 70 -75 % efficiency rating, you are wasting a lot of energy with the system you have, now, and that is just not going to be good enough when the electrical rates start to make the move up that they all are going to do in the next several years, so a move to a much more efficient system is just going to be the right move for you to make.

The energy efficient central heating system is the right move and the savings will not only be with you, this year, but also for years to come and the resale value will only improve. If you are not mad keen on ducted air, then an under floor water heating system would be another very good option to consider.

Choosing the Right Writing Desk

A writing desk is a central feature of style and inspiration. Naturally, many people do not use writing tables for the purpose that they were originally intended, due to the advent of widespread computer usage. Many people, however, do still enjoy having a plain, small writing desk available to sit at and write in their diary or do basic clerical tasks such as bill-paying.

A writing desk is usually a very plain piece of furniture. Essentially, a writing desk provides nothing more than a flat surface to write upon. A few of these desks might have a single small drawer. Anybody who is seeking a writing table generally has very specific uses in mind. There are, however, some other factors to take into account when shopping for a writing desk.

– Use

The first item that consumers should keep in mind when looking for a writing desk is that using one is somewhat different from using a regular desk. The relatively small size of a writing desk makes it an ideal solution for those wanting to fit a desk into a small area. Occasionally, there is a great need for a desk, but the amount of available space is very small. In such cases, writing desks can offer the best of both worlds. Nonetheless, shoppers should also keep in mind that they cannot store as many items on a writing table as they would be able to in a conventional desk. They may be able to setup a laptop PC on top of it, but a full-size desktop PC will probably not be an option when one is using a small writing desk.

Filling an empty space within a room is another common purpose that writing desks serve. A writing desk lends substantial character to spaces that would otherwise remain empty. It may also supply a small storage area with a drawer where your monthly bills can be stored as they wait to be paid.

– Style

Regardless of what you plan to use your writing desk for, style is a very important issue. A writing table that does not match your other decor’ is not a good option. Prior to going shopping, consider the type of space you need the desk for. If you intend to put it in your bedroom, closely inspect your bedroom furnishings and note the metal and wood color and overall style. Then, be careful to look for a writing desk that will blend in well. Many styles are so common that locating a matching table will be quite easy. For instance, one of the most popular styles is currently the mission style. There are many writing tables and bedroom sets that match the mission style.

– Price

Of course, price is another important aspect to think about when buying a writing desk. A great way to some save money on the price of a desk is to select a writing desk rather than a full-sized desk. If you want to save even more, think about buying an RTA (ready-to-assemble) writing desk. These tables are normally quite affordable and are available at major retailers such as Wal-Mart or Target. Just keep in mind that you must assemble the desk yourself. Virtually anyone can do this without much trouble, however. As you put the table together, look for ways to reinforce its construction. Epoxy glue is an excellent way to strengthen a table. Simply glue the sides of the desk together at the same time you fasten them with screws. If the table’s construction includes dowels, use epoxy glue on the dowel ends as you fasten together the pieces of your table. This technique will make your RTA desk last for a very long time.

Energy Efficiency Public Relations Can Help Businesses Educate Consumers

As an energy firm, or any business for that matter, you understand the complexities of todays supply issues. Growing global demand and dwindling carbon-based reserves have put a strain on our energy ingenuity. In light of this, we are faced with a few options. One is to simply abandon our advanced way of life, or limit the spread of industrial technology. Another is to simply continue our current trajectory and deal with the issue when it happens. The third and most reasonable approach is to modify our consumption in addition to developing new energy sources.

So the best way to go about this is to reduce and conserve power. It saves the environment and saves money. But it can be much more. With energy efficient public relations, you can maximize your efforts and use your budget for advertising and marketing in the most efficient manner.

But what does a energy efficient public relations campaign entail? The first thing it includes is a significant change by your firm. This does not mean it ahs to be large in terms of scope, but it must be meaningful. If you manufacture something, reducing power use with newer equipment can mean a lot. Or if you run an It firm, replacing older inefficient servers with newer ones can cut wattage and improve your data capabilities. Whatever the case is, you have to make some kind of commitment or change that will result in decreased energy use.

Once you have taken that step or outlined a long term plan to reduce power use and increase your efficiency, energy efficient public relations takes full effect. This means you will have appropriate media coverage and industry attention on your advancements. This attention can be in the form of appropriate papers, awards, partnerships with environmental agencies and general promotion. Regardless of what specific media outlets you target, you will want to have your energy efficiency public relations campaign run by the best people possible.

Unless your firm is an expert in energy efficient public relations or public relations in general, you will run into a few glitches and worst of all not be as efficient or as effective as you could be. Take for example Makovsky + Company. For over 3 decades, they have been working on energy efficient public relations campaigns. They have the expertise and resources to design and implement an energy efficiency public relations campaign that meets your goals.

This is due to their commitment to specialized thinking. When approaching energy efficiency public relations, they will do so in a unique way. This means truly evaluating your competition and the challenges you currently. In fact, they will even look down the road at difficulties you could face in the future. Partnering with them will get you the full energy efficiency public relations package. No aspect is left unconsidered.

In todays market, cutting costs, improving the bottom line and boosting your image are all things that can make or break your firm, and having an energy efficiency public relations campaign is part of the solution.

Hybrid Cars For Energy Efficiency

A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more discrete power sources to propel the vehicle. Common power sources include:

On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled powA hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more discrete power sources to propel the vehicle. Common power sources include:

On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled power source (internal combustion engine or fuel cell)

Air engine and internal combustion engines

Human powered bicycle with electric motor or gas engine assist

Human-powered or sail boat with electric power

The term most frequently refers to Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which comprises internal combustion engines and electric motors.

Early hybrid systems are being examined for trucks and other heavy highway vehicles with a few operational trucks and buses initial to come into use. The chief barrier seem to be smaller fleet sizes and the extra costs of a hybrid system are yet remunerated for by fuel savings, but with the price of oil set to persist on its upward trend, the tipping point might be reached by the end of 2008. Advances in technology and lesser battery cost and higher capacity etc. urbanized in the hybrid car industry are already filtering into truck use as Toyota, Ford, GM and others initiate hybrid pickups and SUVs. Kenworth Truck Company lately introduced a hybrid-electric truck, called the Kenworth T270 Class 6 that for city usage appear to be competitive. FedEx and others are preparatory to invest in hybrid delivery type vehiclesmainly for city use where hybrid technology may pay off first. The U.S. military is inspecting hybrid Humvees and other vehicles.

When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it normally refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These cover such vehicles as the AHS2 (Chevrolet Tahoe, GMC Yukon, Chevrolet Silverado, Cadillac Escalade, and the Saturn Vue), Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid normally uses internal combustion engines and electric batteries to control electric motors. There are loads of types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains, from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid, which proffer varying merits and demerits.
While liquid fuel/electric hybrids in the late 1800s, the braking regenerative hybrid was invented by David Arthurs, an electrical engineer from Springdale, Arkansas in 1978-79. His home-converted Opel GT was reported to get as much as 75MPG and plans are still sold to this novel design, and the “Mother Earth News” customized version on their website.

Hybrid fuel (dual mode)

Additionally, vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also deem vehicles that use discrete energy sources or input types (“fuels”) using the same engine to be hybrids, even though to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use in the approved manner the terms, these are perhaps more suitably described as dual mode vehicles:

A few electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and
Overhead electrical power depending on circumstances (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be pooled with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, though as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced.

Flexible-fuel vehicles can be able to use an assortment of input fuels (petroleum and biofuels) in one tank characteristically gasoline and bioethanol or biobutanol, though diesel-biodiesel vehicles would also meet the criteria.

Dual mode: Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are diverse from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the identical tanks, so it would be unfeasible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. As an alternative vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. While the replicated tanks cost space in some applications, the augmented range and flexibility where (LPG or NG) infrastructure is incomplete may be a noteworthy incentive to purchase.

Few vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars customized to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels customized to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel.

Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and additional human-powered vehicles are also integrated.

Fluid power hybrid

Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid vehicles employ an engine to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels through hydraulic or pneumatic (i.e. compressed air) drive units. The energy recovery rate is elevated and therefore the system is more efficient than battery charged hybrids, demonstrating a 60% to 70% increase in energy economy in EPA testing. Under tests performed by the EPA, a hydraulic hybrid Ford Expedition returned 32 mpgU.S. (7.35 L/100 km / 38.4 mpgimp) City, and 22 mpgU.S. (10.69 L/100 km / 26.4 mpgimp) highway

The most recent hybrid technology is the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The PHEV is inclusive of a gasoline-electric hybrid whose battery pack (usually Li-ion) is upgraded to a superior capacity, which can be recharged by moreover a battery charger curved into the electrical grid or the gasoline engine (only if required). The car runs on battery power for the first 10 to 60 miles (16100 km), with the gasoline engine on hand for faster speeding up, etc.

After the battery is almost discharged, the car reverts to the gasoline engine to recharge the battery and/or return the car to the charging station. This may get around the fundamental barrier of battery range that has made nearly all pure electric cars impractical. Fuel rates, in principle, may be as low as 5 cents/mile. It’s not obvious yet whether converting an existing hybrid car will ever pay for itself in fuel savings.

The major problem is finding a good, cheap, high-energy battery packthe equivalent problem that has plagued the unpolluted electric car. If everyone plugged into the function grid to charge up their car this would seem to be just displacing the gasoline/diesel combustion crisis to the trait coal powered electrical generating plant. But, if cars were recharged tardy at night this would allow the base load of the electrical system to be more capable with a much more even base load and electrical power can also be generated by clean wind, hydro, tide power, etc. while most travel is regarding 30 miles/day this may be the cleanest personal transportation system at present available.

There is a “cottage” conversion industry for owner- existing hybrids, and more than a few huge auto industry groups (GM, Toyota, Mercedes etc.) plus the US Department of Energy are investigating this system. No chief car company (as of late 2007) offers PHEVs yet. The characteristic “cottage” industry conversion car is the Toyota Prius (cost of conversion $5k-$40k), as it is a full hybrid with sufficient power in its electrical system to maintain distinctive city speeds.

Fuel consumption and emissions reductions

The hybrid vehicle characteristically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), ensuing in fewer emissions being generated. These savings are mainly achieved by four elements of a typical hybrid design:

-Recapturing energy generally wasted during braking etc. (regenerative braking) this is a mechanism that condenses vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into a further helpful form of energy, particularly in stop-and-go traffic.

-having important battery storage capacity to store and recycle recaptured energy;

– shutting down the gasoline or diesel engine in traffic stops or while coasting or other idle periods;

– civilizing aerodynamics; A box shaped car or truck has to put forth more force to move through the air causing added stress on the engine making it toil harder. Improving the shape and aerodynamics of a car is a fine way to help better the gas mileage and also get better handling at the same time.

– By means of low rolling resistance tires; (tires these days are made to give a fine, smooth ride but hardly ever is efficiency taken into consideration. These tires cause a great pact of drag, once again making the engine toil harder, intense more gas mileage. Hybrid cars use special tires that are more exaggerated than regular tires and stiffer, which decreases the drag by about half, humanizing fuel economy by mitigating stress of the engine.

– relying on mutually the gasoline (or diesel engine) and the electric motors for peak power requires ensuing in a smaller gasoline or diesel engine sized more for normal usage rather than peak power usage.

These features make a hybrid vehicle chiefly efficient for city traffic where there are recurrent stops, coasting and idling periods. Besides noise emissions are condensed, mainly at idling and low operating speeds, in similarity to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles. For constant high speed highway use these features are much less helpful in reducing emissions.er source (internal combustion engine or fuel cell)

Air engine and internal combustion engines

Human powered bicycle with electric motor or gas engine assist

Human-powered or sail boat with electric power

The term most frequently refers to Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which comprises internal combustion engines and electric motors.

Early hybrid systems are being examined for trucks and other heavy highway vehicles with a few operational trucks and buses initial to come into use. The chief barrier seem to be smaller fleet sizes and the extra costs of a hybrid system are yet remunerated for by fuel savings, but with the price of oil set to persist on its upward trend, the tipping point might be reached by the end of 2008. Advances in technology and lesser battery cost and higher capacity etc. urbanized in the hybrid car industry are already filtering into truck use as Toyota, Ford, GM and others initiate hybrid pickups and SUVs. Kenworth Truck Company lately introduced a hybrid-electric truck, called the Kenworth T270 Class 6 that for city usage appear to be competitive. FedEx and others are preparatory to invest in hybrid delivery type vehiclesmainly for city use where hybrid technology may pay off first. The U.S. military is inspecting hybrid Humvees and other vehicles.

When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it normally refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These cover such vehicles as the AHS2 (Chevrolet Tahoe, GMC Yukon, Chevrolet Silverado, Cadillac Escalade, and the Saturn Vue), Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid normally uses internal combustion engines and electric batteries to control electric motors. There are loads of types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains, from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid, which proffer varying merits and demerits.
While liquid fuel/electric hybrids in the late 1800s, the braking regenerative hybrid was invented by David Arthurs, an electrical engineer from Springdale, Arkansas in 1978-79. His home-converted Opel GT was reported to get as much as 75MPG and plans are still sold to this novel design, and the “Mother Earth News” customized version on their website.

Hybrid fuel (dual mode)

Additionally, vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also deem vehicles that use discrete energy sources or input types (“fuels”) using the same engine to be hybrids, even though to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use in the approved manner the terms, these are perhaps more suitably described as dual mode vehicles:

A few electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and
Overhead electrical power depending on circumstances (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be pooled with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, though as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced.

Flexible-fuel vehicles can be able to use an assortment of input fuels (petroleum and biofuels) in one tank characteristically gasoline and bioethanol or biobutanol, though diesel-biodiesel vehicles would also meet the criteria.

Dual mode: Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are diverse from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the identical tanks, so it would be unfeasible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. As an alternative vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. While the replicated tanks cost space in some applications, the augmented range and flexibility where (LPG or NG) infrastructure is incomplete may be a noteworthy incentive to purchase.

Few vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars customized to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels customized to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel.

Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and additional human-powered vehicles are also integrated.

Fluid power hybrid

Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid vehicles employ an engine to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels through hydraulic or pneumatic (i.e. compressed air) drive units. The energy recovery rate is elevated and therefore the system is more efficient than battery charged hybrids, demonstrating a 60% to 70% increase in energy economy in EPA testing. Under tests performed by the EPA, a hydraulic hybrid Ford Expedition returned 32 mpgU.S. (7.35 L/100 km / 38.4 mpgimp) City, and 22 mpgU.S. (10.69 L/100 km / 26.4 mpgimp) highway

The most recent hybrid technology is the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The PHEV is inclusive of a gasoline-electric hybrid whose battery pack (usually Li-ion) is upgraded to a superior capacity, which can be recharged by moreover a battery charger curved into the electrical grid or the gasoline engine (only if required). The car runs on battery power for the first 10 to 60 miles (16100 km), with the gasoline engine on hand for faster speeding up, etc.

After the battery is almost discharged, the car reverts to the gasoline engine to recharge the battery and/or return the car to the charging station. This may get around the fundamental barrier of battery range that has made nearly all pure electric cars impractical. Fuel rates, in principle, may be as low as 5 cents/mile. It’s not obvious yet whether converting an existing hybrid car will ever pay for itself in fuel savings.

The major problem is finding a good, cheap, high-energy battery packthe equivalent problem that has plagued the unpolluted electric car. If everyone plugged into the function grid to charge up their car this would seem to be just displacing the gasoline/diesel combustion crisis to the trait coal powered electrical generating plant. But, if cars were recharged tardy at night this would allow the base load of the electrical system to be more capable with a much more even base load and electrical power can also be generated by clean wind, hydro, tide power, etc. while most travel is regarding 30 miles/day this may be the cleanest personal transportation system at present available.

There is a “cottage” conversion industry for owner- existing hybrids, and more than a few huge auto industry groups (GM, Toyota, Mercedes etc.) plus the US Department of Energy are investigating this system. No chief car company (as of late 2007) offers PHEVs yet. The characteristic “cottage” industry conversion car is the Toyota Prius (cost of conversion $5k-$40k), as it is a full hybrid with sufficient power in its electrical system to maintain distinctive city speeds.

Fuel consumption and emissions reductions

The hybrid vehicle characteristically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), ensuing in fewer emissions being generated. These savings are mainly achieved by four elements of a typical hybrid design:

-Recapturing energy generally wasted during braking etc. (regenerative braking) this is a mechanism that condenses vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into a further helpful form of energy, particularly in stop-and-go traffic.

-having important battery storage capacity to store and recycle recaptured energy;

– shutting down the gasoline or diesel engine in traffic stops or while coasting or other idle periods;

– civilizing aerodynamics; A box shaped car or truck has to put forth more force to move through the air causing added stress on the engine making it toil harder. Improving the shape and aerodynamics of a car is a fine way to help better the gas mileage and also get better handling at the same time.

– By means of low rolling resistance tires; (tires these days are made to give a fine, smooth ride but hardly ever is efficiency taken into consideration. These tires cause a great pact of drag, once again making the engine toil harder, intense more gas mileage. Hybrid cars use special tires that are more exaggerated than regular tires and stiffer, which decreases the drag by about half, humanizing fuel economy by mitigating stress of the engine.

– relying on mutually the gasoline (or diesel engine) and the electric motors for peak power requires ensuing in a smaller gasoline or diesel engine sized more for normal usage rather than peak power usage.

These features make a hybrid vehicle chiefly efficient for city traffic where there are recurrent stops, coasting and idling periods. Besides noise emissions are condensed, mainly at idling and low operating speeds, in similarity to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles. For constant high speed highway use these features are much less helpful in reducing emissions.